ELF Style Sheet

When you submit your manuscript for publication in the ELF Annual Research Journal, please follow these guidelines. By preparing your manuscript in the light of these instructions, you will prevent unnecessary delays in the publication of your paper.

The ELF Annual Research Journal follows largely the style of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) sixth edition with some discretion as mentioned here.

Title and Abstract:

Please give your manuscript a brief, clear, and informative title. Titles should preferably be a maximum of 50 characters long, with an absolute maximum of 70, including spaces.

Begin your manuscript with an abstract of not more than 200 words summarizing your main points. The abstract should be followed by a minimum of five keywords. As per APA style, the abstract should describe: the problem under investigation; the participants, specifying pertinent characteristics such as age, sex, and ethnic or racial group; the essential features of the study method—particularly the interesting features of the study; methodology and those likely to be used in electronic searches; the basic findings, including effect sizes and confidence intervals and/or statistical significance levels; and the conclusions and the implications or applications.

Headings and Subheadings:

Make sure the levels of different headings are clear. Do not use a numbering or lettering system for headings. There can be three levels of headings which follow a topdown progression. There cannot be only one heading comprising a level of heading. Note that the publisher allows a maximum of three levels of heading as suggested below.

Level one

Flush Left, Boldface, and Upper and Lowercase Heading

Level two

Flush Left Boldface, Italicized, Upper and Lowercase Heading

Level three

Flush Left bold face, italicized, lowercase heading


It is essential that your manuscript use verb tenses correctly to ensure smoothness of expression.

  • Use past tense or present perfect tense for the literature review and the description of the procedure (i.e., method) if the discussion is of events that did indeed occur in the past.
  • Use past tense to describe your analysis, findings, and the results (as your analysis and what you found occurred in the past).
  • Use present tense to discuss implications of the results and to present conclusions.


Correct sequence of items in your manuscript file: article, endnotes, references, appendix (if any, unless a table, then attach separately as a table). Attach tables (which can be together but one per page) as a separate file. Attach each figure as a separate file (one figure per file).

Always see the Instructions to Contributors published in each issue of the journal and online at http://elf.salu.edu.pk

In-Text References:

All works cited in the text should be in the reference list and vice versa. Works are identified by author(s) and year of publication. Provide page number(s) after a direct quote. V 8 For 6 or fewer authors, list all names the first time; use “et al.” in subsequent citations if more than two authors. For more than 6 authors, use “et al.” from the first time on. (All names must be cited in the reference list.) If the reference list includes publications by two or more authors with the same surname, include the author’s initials in all text citations even if the year of publication differs (e.g., J. R. Smith,1990; B. L. Smith, 1995).

Multiple authors—in text: “Smith and Kline”; in parenthesis: (“Smith & Kline”)

Several publications by one author: (Smith, 1981, 1982) [use comma, not semicolon]

Several works cited together: (Smith, 1981; Jones, 1988) [alphabetical]

Several publications by one author, same year: (Smith, 1981a, 1981b) [consecutive by year]

Reference list:

All works in the reference list must be cited in the text. Type the first line of each reference flush left; indent all subsequent lines. Alphabetize by first author; in cases of same first author, alphabetize by first initial, second author, etc. Single-author entries precede multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname. For several works by the same author, cite earliest one first.

Capitalize only the first word of each title and subtitle and proper names.

In the examples on the following pages, please pay close attention to punctuation, the order of names and initials (there should be a space between first and second initial), and capitalization of various kinds of titles.

Journal article, one author

Paivio, A. (1975). Perceptual comparisons through the mind’s eye. Memory & Cognition, 3, 360–370. 

Journal article, two authors, journal paginated by issue

Becker, L. J., & Seligman, C. (1981). Welcome to the energy crisis. Journal of Social Issues, 37(2), 1–7. 

Magazine article

Gardner, H. (1981, December). Do babies sing a universal song? Psychology Today, pp. 70–76.

Newspaper article, discontinuous pages

Lublin, J. S. (1980, December 5). Study finds free care used more. The Wall Street Journal, pp. 1, 25.

(Precede page numbers for newspaper articles with “p.” or “pp.”)

Reference to an entire book

Bernstein, T. M. (1965). The careful writer: A modern guide to English usage. New York: Atheneum.

Book, third edition, Jr. in name

Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The elements of style (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan.

Book, corporate author, author as publisher

American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Washington, DC: Author.

Edited book

Letheridge, S., & Canon, C. R. (Eds.). (1980). Bilingual education: Teaching English as a second language. New York: Praeger.

Several vols. in multi-volume edited work over more than 1 year

Wilson, J. G., & Fraser, F. C. (Eds.). (1977–1978). Handbook of teratology (Vols. 1–4). New York: Plenum Press.

Article or chapter in an edited book

Hartley, J. T., Harker, J. O., & Walsh, D. A. (1980). Contemporary issues and new directions in adult development of learning and memory. In L. W. Poon (Ed.), Aging in the 1980s: Psychological issues (pp. 239–252). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Report from the Government Printing Office

National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. VI The Role of Illustrations in an Encoding Dictionary 9

Report from ERIC

Mead, J. V. (1992). Looking at old photographs: Investigating the teacher tales that novice teachers bring with them (Report No. NCRTL-BR-92-4). East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research on Teacher Learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 346 082).

Proceedings of meetings and symposia

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). A motivational approach to self: Integration in personality. In R. Dienstbier (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 38, Perspectives on motivation (pp. 237–288). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

(Capitalize the name of the symposium; treat regularly published proceedings as periodicals.)

Unpublished paper presented at a meeting

Lanktree, C., & Brier, J. (1991, January). Early data on the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSC-C). Paper presented at the meeting of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, San Diego, CA.

Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis

Wilfley, D. E. (1989). Interpersonal analyses of bulimia (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis). University of Missouri, Columbia.

Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis available from database

Ross, D. F. (1990). Unconscious transference and mistaken identity (Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis). Retrieved from Dissertation Abstracts International. (Z5055)

Unpublished manuscript

Stinson, C., Milbrath, C., & Bucci, W. (1992). Thematic segmentation of psychotherapy transcripts for convergent analyses.

Unpublished manuscript. Unpublished manuscript with a university cited

Gottfredson. G. D. (1978). Why don’t vocational interests predict job satisfaction better than they do? Unpublished manuscript, Johns Hopkins University, Center for Social Organization of Schools, Baltimore.